The Journey of Sperm

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Allan Pacey BSc, PhD, FRCOG

By Professor Allan Pacey BSc, PhD, FRCOG - University of Sheffield

For successful conception, sperm need to make the most remarkable journey through the bodies of men and women. It is a journey that scientists have only recently been able to understand in any detail, with new discoveries being made all the time. This article outlines our current knowledge and explains what makes for a winning sperm, but also why the majority of sperm never make it at all.

The journey of sperm begins inside the testicles. Males begin to produce sperm at the start of puberty at around 12 or 13 years old. It is a process that requires a slightly cooler temperature, which is why testicles hang outside men's bodies. Nor is it a quick process: the production of sperm takes about 70 days. Exactly how many sperm come off the production line is also critical to how fertile each man is.

Anatomy of a testicle

In simple terms, the larger a man's testicles the greater the number of sperm produced per unit time. This is because inside bigger testicles there are more of the sperm pre-cursor cells (called spermatogonia) that divide and multiply and go on to make new sperm. Also, there are more of the intricate labyrinths of tubes and nurse cells that are critical for the production of sperm. Quite simply, the bigger the factory the bigger the quantity of sperm produced.

about 1,000 sperm roll off the production line with every heartbeat

Sperm in the testis

In a typical fertile male, about 1,000 sperm roll off the production line with every heartbeat. However, before they are finally ready for release, sperm first spend another week or so passing through a long winding tube called the epididymis. Here finishing touches are added to them, including modifications to the molecules on their surface that ultimately will help when they reach the egg. In addition, there are also some 'tweaks' to the machinery of the tail that will help them swim better when the time comes.

Sperm in the epididymis

Once sperm leave the epididymis, they can remain alive, healthy and motionless for several weeks in the man's body without being released. Men have the capacity to store many billions of sperm, but if sperm are stored for too long, then they can start to degenerate and die. This is a natural process designed to dispose of old sperm. However, if ejaculation does not happen often, then older degenerating sperm can damage newer sperm leaving the epididymis. Therefore, scientists recommend that men ejaculate every two or three days to keep the reservoir of sperm in optimal condition.

Sperm waiting in the vas deferens

When ejaculation finally happens, about 250 million of the sperm being stored are propelled by muscular contractions through a tube called the vas deferens and then into the tube passing down the penis (the urethra) that eventually leads to the outside world. It is the muscular contractions that contribute to the feeling of orgasm that men experience during intercourse. Typically, there are several spurts of fluid from the end of the penis at orgasm. The majority of sperm are in the first spurt, with the second and third containing fluid from the prostate gland and other structures called the seminal vesicles. It is now that the sperm begin swimming for the first time.

Journey of Sperm

Once inside the vagina, sperm must escape quickly if they are to survive. Perhaps surprisingly, the environment of the vagina is quite acidic. This is an important defense mechanism to protect women's bodies from attack by bacteria and viruses in everyday life. However, following sexual intercourse, these acids would also quickly kill sperm if the fluids from the prostate and seminal vesicles did not give them some protection.

Therefore, in those few minutes immediately after ejaculation it is the fastest, healthiest or just plain luckiest sperm that have enough time to swim out of the vagina and into the relative safety of the cervix. Slow, deformed or unlucky sperm are left behind in the vagina and quickly die. A woman's cervix acts as an amazing filter and it's easy to see how men who produce too few 'mucus penetrating sperm' may find it difficult to get their partner pregnant and therefore may suffer infertility as a consequence.

only about 1 in 100 of the sperm ejaculated into the vagina will ever make it into the relative safety of the cervix
Sperm in the vagina and cervix

As a general rule of thumb, scientists think that only about 1 in 100 of the sperm ejaculated into the vagina will ever make it into the relative safety of the cervix. However, to make matters more complicated, this will also depend on the hormone profile of the woman and how close she is to releasing an egg from her ovaries. It is only in those few days immediately before ovulation that a woman's cervical mucus allows sperm inside. Outside this fertile window, even the strongest and fastest sperm will find it impossible to get inside.

Entering the cervix is, however, only the very start of a sperm's journey through a woman's body. The next step is how to get through the womb and into one of the Fallopian tubes. Although it is a journey of only about 10 or 12 centimeters, there are a number of hazards along the way.

The first hurdle for sperm that successfully enter the womb is whether to go left or right. This is because women have two Fallopian tubes (one at either side) but since only one of her ovaries will release an egg in any given month, sperm must swim into the right one. To make their way down a Fallopian tube toward an ovary that isn't going to release an egg would be a wasted journey! Thankfully, to increase the odds of sperm getting it right, the woman's body comes to the rescue.

Sperm in the uterus (womb)

Briefly, as the egg gets closer to being released from the ovary, some of the hormones that are produced to help the egg grow also enter the woman's bloodstream. These trigger muscles in the wall of the womb closest to it start rhythmically contracting upward, slowly moving sperm gently toward the entrance of the Fallopian tube on the same side. Because the muscles on the other side (which isn't growing an egg) receive fewer hormones, they don't contract as much meaning sperm generally don't go in that direction.

However, getting to the opening of one of the woman's Fallopian tubes, on the side of her body where the egg is about to appear from, is only part of the journey. Here the woman's body has another trick up her sleeve. Although the entrance to the Fallopian tube is a tiny opening only a few sperm heads wide, it acts as a valve only letting certain sperm inside. This again means that the woman's body is selecting sperm to make sure that only the best ones get close to the egg.

Scientists think that sperm are selected to enter the Fallopian tubes in two ways. First, some experiments have shown that if sperm swim too erratically then they are unable to get inside. Sperm that swim like this are nearing the end of their life and so perhaps they are being excluded because they won't live long enough to find an egg. Second, there is some evidence that sperm with certain molecules on their surface can't get into the Fallopian tube either. Quite how this works is unclear, but again it shows that not just any sperm can complete the journey. Of the many millions of sperm that were ejaculated into the vagina, only perhaps a hundred get this far!

Sperm in fallopian tube

Once inside the Fallopian tubes, sperm are in a relatively safe place in comparison to the rest of their journey so far. Here the female body helps them survive and remain in a healthy condition until the egg is ready to be released. For example, several research studies now suggest that inside the Fallopian tubes, sperm tend to stick to the inner walls by the tip of their head. Studies have shown that sperm that stick tend to live longer and have better quality DNA in their heads than sperm that don't.

Some scientists believe that when sperm attach and stick to the sidewalls of the Fallopian tube, this gives the woman's body a signal to say sperm have finally arrived. Others have suggested that once sperm are stuck, new molecules are produced by the cells which line the inside of the Fallopian tube which may ultimately help in fertilization or embryo development. Whilst it is hard to know for sure, one thing is clear: if sperm are to fertilzse an egg they must free themselves from the sidewalls as soon as it appears.

Sperm attached to sidewalls of fallopian tube

Quite how long sperm can remain stuck to the sidewalls of the Fallopian tube is unclear. But to pull themselves away, they increase the beat of their tail to give them extra thrust. This type of swimming is called hyperactivation and it's very important in these final stages of a sperm's journey.

Once free from the sidewalls, then sperm need to make their way down the Fallopian tube in the direction of the ovary in order to find an egg that will be shortly coming in the other direction. Quite how they do this is not completely clear, but probably involves one or both of the following mechanisms:

First, inside the Fallopian tube there is probably a subtle change of temperature that occurs once the egg is released from the ovary. Experiments in the laboratory suggest that sperm are 'positively thermotaxic' which means they preferentially swim to a warmer place. It has been suggested that after ovulation has occurred it is one or two degrees Celsius warmer in the middle of the Fallopian tube (where the egg will eventually arrive) so sperm will naturally make their way there.

Second, it has also been suggested that sperm are able to detect subtle chemical signals, either given off by the egg once it is released from the ovary or that are released from the ovary at the same time as the egg (perhaps in the fluid that bathes the growing egg). The response of sperm to these signals is called chemotaxis and if true, it will be a powerful attractant to guide the sperm to the egg.

probably only half a dozen sperm ever get this far!

Either way, one or both of these mechanisms will serve to make sure that there are a few sperm present in the middle of the Fallopian tube in time for the egg to appear. This is important because, in comparison to sperm, the egg only has a limited life and once released from the ovary will need to be fertilized within a few hours if conception is to occur. Therefore it is critical that sperm get to the right place in the Fallopian tube before the egg arrives. However, probably only half a dozen sperm ever get this far!

In comparison to sperm, the egg is quite a large cell - the largest in the human body. In addition, it is released from the ovary surrounded by a cloud of cells called the cumulus through which the sperm must first penetrate before they can reach and make contact with the egg surface. To assist sperm to get through the cumulus, the sperm must again use the erratic and frenetic swimming style (hyperactivation) that they used to pull away from the sidewalls of the Fallopian tube.

Sperm swimming towards egg

At this point in the sperm's journey there are perhaps only one or two sperm close to the egg and with any chance of fertilizing it. However, for the successful sperm, there is one more hurdle left: how to get inside the egg once it reaches the egg surface. To some extent, the hyperactivated tail beat that helped the sperm get free of the Fallopian tube side walls and through the cloud of cumulus cells will also assist here. But for additional help there is a bag of enzymes on the very top of the sperm head that bursts once the winning sperm makes contact with the outer surface of the egg.

The enzymes help dissolve the outer membrane of the egg and in combination with the powerful tail thrusts, assist the sperm in penetrating the egg and getting inside. Once this is achieved, then there is an immediate chemical reaction inside the egg that suddenly hardens the egg membrane and stops other sperm from following it. If two sperm were to fertilize the egg, the egg would then contain too many chromosomes and in the resulting confusion embryo development would fail to occur.

Sperm - the moment of conception

Over the following few hours the sperm tail is detached (this stays outside) and the chromosomes inside the sperm head separate and line up with those from the egg to start the process of forming a new individual. At this point the sperm's journey has ended, but the journey of the embryo has only just begun.

See how the race of the winning sperm unfolds in our infographic

Click the image below to see a larger view

250 million attempt the journey, but only one will make it...

Embed the The Journey of Sperm infographic on your site (copy the code below):

<div style="clear:both"><a href=""><img src="" title="The Journey of the Winning Sperm" alt="The Journey of the Winning Sperm" border="0" /></a></div><div>Courtesy of: <a href="">Ovulation Calculator</a></div>

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What did you find fascinating about the Journey of Sperm? Please let us know below.

New Join the Discussion!

  1. Franklin Jul 18, 2016
    I want to knw wen I ovulated in this month of July my period was on 30 June.
    1. Sarah (OC Team): Hi Franklin, Ovulation Calculator (this site) calculates this for you. Please join by following the link below and enter your cycle details to see your next ovulation prediction. - (Jul 18, 2016)
    2. Crystal: I had my last cycle on 10/4. My husband and I had sex on 10/17 and 10/18. Can I be pregnant? - (Oct 30, 2016)
    3. Marisel: I want to know when is the best time to have sex if my period was last on October 25th. Thank you. - (Nov 07, 2016)
    4. Christina (OC Team): Hi Marisel, as Sarah mentioned above, the site (Ovulation Calculator) can calculate your fertile window. Good luck! - (Nov 07, 2016)
  2. Augustina Jul 26, 2016
    I had my period on 13 July and l had sex on 23, 24 and 25 July. So how possible is conception this time?
    1. Sarah (OC Team): Hi, It depends on other factors such as your cycle length, luteal phase and daily cycle data. OC will take all this into account and show your conception odds in your Fertile Window. Go to your ME page and tap on Cycle Overview or Fertile Window. Make sure you log all your periods and cycle data to keep your predictions accurate. - (Jul 27, 2016)
    2. Lynda: I have been trying for 1 year now to get pregnant with a baby girl, but to no avail. Sometimes my period is regular, sometimes not. I saw my period on the 12 of Nov. Which day can i have sex to get pregnant with a baby girl? - (Nov 25, 2016)
    3. Christina (OC Team): Log your cycle dates into your account and you'll get a prediction of your fertile window. This will tell you when to try to conceive. You'll also see recommendations for trying for a girl or boy based on the Settles Method. - (Nov 25, 2016)
    4. Lynda: @Christina thanks - (Nov 25, 2016)
  3. Kimberley Jul 27, 2016
    Amazing.... Just learned something new today!
  4. Ogechi Jul 28, 2016
    It is not easy, it takes a healthy sperm to do it!
    1. Sarah (OC Team): Yes, but only one of about 250 million! - (Jul 28, 2016)
  5. Love Jul 28, 2016
    I had my period on 18 July 2016, what date will I ovulate, and when should I have sex?
    1. Sarah (OC Team): Please see your calendar in Ovulation Calculator. Go to 'ME' > 'Cycle Overview' and switch it to calendar view if it's not already on calendar view. - (Jul 29, 2016)
  6. Jenny Jul 29, 2016
    Why have I been feeling sick since Monday 25/07/2016 till now, having diarrhea and vomited? Not been able to eat or stand up. My period is 4/08/2016. I had sex in my fertile window.
    1. Sarah (OC Team): Hi Jenny, you should seek advice from your Doctor, she or he will be able to advise you. - (Jul 31, 2016)
  7. Mary Aug 02, 2016
    I had my period on the 20th of July. My cycle is 31 days, and I had sex on the 31st. My ovulation will start tomorrow. That means I have the chance to conceive.
    1. Christina (OC Team): If you had sex on the 31st and will ovulate on the 3rd, you are within your fertile window and have a chance to conceive in this cycle. Your fertile window includes 5 days before ovulation and the day you ovulate for a total of 6 days. - (Aug 02, 2016)
  8. Success Aug 03, 2016
    I had my period on the 28th of July, 2016. When will I ovulate?
    1. Christina (OC Team): We would need more information in order to predict your fertile window. I'd suggest setting up an account at and entering your information to track fertility. - (Aug 04, 2016)
  9. Sonile Aug 06, 2016
    Hi, Can you get pregnant before your period?
    1. Christina (OC Team): You can get pregnant by having unprotected sex within your fertile window. This is the six days before and including ovulation. - (Aug 06, 2016)
  10. Lilly Aug 09, 2016
    I have been trying to pregnant after my first child. My child is 2 years old. I did HSG and the result says one fallopian tube is blocked. I have been having sex on my fertile days yet still negative. Can I still get pregnant? Please help.
  11. Johanna Aug 10, 2016
    Is it true that Geritol can help a woman get pregnant faster?
    1. Monica: Yes I have used them. They worked for me. - (Oct 16, 2016)
  12. Funke Aug 12, 2016
    Interesting write up.
    I hope it will work for me.
  13. Chidinma Aug 14, 2016
    Quite interesting. I didn't know the sperm's journey before.
  14. Rachael Aug 14, 2016
    Is it possible to get pregnant if one tube is blocked and the egg is produced by the ovary on the side of the blocked tube?
    1. Christina (OC Team): That may depend on the severity of the blockage. Your doctor should be able to give you some more insight on your specific case. Good luck on your journey!! - (Aug 15, 2016)
    2. Rachael: Thank you. After two years of trying, I need a lot of luck. - (Aug 15, 2016)
    3. OG.: I have been trying to access the ovulation calculator to no avail, even after filling in my details and the sex. By God's grace, I would prefer kind assist. Thank you for this priceless knowledge. - (Oct 08, 2016)
    4. Christina (OC Team): Can you further explain the trouble you're having? It sounds like you can log details, like when you've had sex. What are you not able to do? - (Oct 09, 2016)
  15. Rachael Aug 14, 2016
    I didn't know only one ovary produces an egg each cycle. Wow... that makes its tougher for some of us.
  16. Uche Aug 15, 2016
    I have sex on my highest fertile day. 35% of conception, will that guarantee me to conceive a
    baby boy?
    1. Christina (OC Team): Unfortunately, there are no guarantees when it comes to conception. Good luck on your journey! - (Aug 15, 2016)
  17. Uche Aug 15, 2016
    How can I conceive for a baby boy? Please help, I have sex on my highest fertile day. Can that result to a baby boy?
    1. Christina (OC Team): Having sex on your most fertile day will increase your chances of conceiving a baby. Good luck! - (Aug 15, 2016)
  18. Ifeoma Aug 16, 2016
    I had my period on 07/08/2016. When will I ovulate? My period is consistent at 28 days.
    1. Christina (OC Team): You will likely ovulate between the 17th and the 23rd, but it is possible to ovulate outside of this window too. I'd suggest tracking CM and CP. This article may help - (Aug 16, 2016)
  19. Nike Aug 16, 2016
    I really like the explanation.
  20. Nikky Aug 17, 2016
    When a woman conceives, can she still feel the normal pain that comes before her menstruation time?
    1. Christina (OC Team): A woman can feel light abdominal cramping from implantation. You can learn more about that here - (Aug 18, 2016)
  21. Ifunanya Aug 26, 2016
    My test date is 29th Aug with the help of this ovulation calculator. I had my period on the 2nd of Aug and it ended on the 6th. I ovulated between the 15-19th. I did the BD on the 10th,11,13,16,17,19 and Praying for a BFP.
    1. Christina (OC Team): It sounds like you're covered! Good luck! - (Aug 26, 2016)
    2. Ifunanya: Hey Christina...thanks a lot. I was really covered. Tested on 29th according to OC. I got a BFP. Excited. Baby dust to every woman believing in God for a baby! - (Sep 02, 2016)
    3. Christina (OC Team): That is such great news! Congratulations! - (Sep 02, 2016)
    4. Ifunanya: Thanks, hun @christina - (Sep 02, 2016)
    5. Ifunanya: Hi Christina, I want to find out how many weeks old my pregnancy would be now. I had my period on the 2nd of Aug and it ended on the 6th of Aug. I tested positive on the 29th of Aug. - (Sep 04, 2016)
    6. Christina (OC Team): Your doctor will give you an estimate, but they usually count from the first day of your last cycle. - (Sep 04, 2016)
    7. Ifunanya: Ok... thanks - (Sep 04, 2016)
    8. Yanira: Congratulations, and can one of you ladies tell me what BFD stands for? - (Sep 28, 2016)
    9. Christina (OC Team): BFP = Big fat positive BD = Baby dance (sex) - (Sep 28, 2016)
  22. Nichole Aug 30, 2016
    I had spotting on August 10th-12th and the calendar said I would ovulate on the 24th. I had sex the 22nd, 23rd and a couple of days after that. What are the chances of me getting pregnant?
    1. Christina (OC Team): If you had sex during your fertile window, you have a chance at conceiving. I'd recommend also tracking ovulation another way to increase the accuracy of your prediction. Here is some information about charting BBC you may find helpful. Good luck! - (Aug 30, 2016)
  23. Sparkle Sep 01, 2016

    Below are my period details:
    June 12th - jun15
    Aug 8th - Aug11

    Can you help me with finding the cycle day? In my app, it's showing as cycle day 51.
    If I want to log with a 51-day cycle, it's not not allowing me enter more than 45.

    1. Sarah (OC Team): Hi Sparkle, I can see that you have logged both of your periods successfully. Jun 12th and Aug 8th. If you now look at the Calendar you will see your predictions based on your Joined Cycle Length of 45. When you log more periods and cycle data the system will adjust and your predictions will get stronger. - (Sep 01, 2016)
  24. Anithea Sep 01, 2016
    Hi, I'm on a 28 day cycle. Got my period the 19th of Aug till the 23rd of Aug. I had sex with hubby the 28th, 30th and 2nd of Sept. What are my chances for getting pregnant?
    1. Christina (OC Team): This depends on when you ovulated. Many women ovulate 15 days before their next period (but you would only know exactly when you ovulated by tracking). If that were true for you, three of those days would have been within your fertile window. But if you want to know when you ovulate, try charting BBT. More info here. - (Sep 02, 2016)
  25. Maryam Sep 02, 2016
    Please how many hours or days does it take the right sperm to get to the egg?
    1. Christina (OC Team): It really depends on speed. It could take hours or days. - (Sep 02, 2016)
  26. Eam Sep 03, 2016
    I'm excited. I'm trying to have a baby and this is my first time to monitor my cervix and my ovulation. I hope I'll get a postive result by the end of September. Wish, wish!
    1. Christina (OC Team): It is exciting! Good luck! - (Sep 03, 2016)
  27. Gift Sep 04, 2016
    I feel this hotness whenever my husband ejaculates in me. And I'm trying to conceive. Why is that so?
    1. Christina (OC Team): If something feels abnormal or concerning, talk to your doctor. - (Sep 04, 2016)
  28. Kasiemobi Sep 05, 2016
    I need help as I am new here. I had my last period on the 31st of August and it ended on the 2nd. Please, when am I likely to ovulate this month?
    1. Christina (OC Team): Hello and welcome! To get a prediction, enter your cycle dates into your Ovulation Calculator account. - (Sep 06, 2016)
  29. Elizabeth Sep 06, 2016
    Hi, thanks for this calculation calendar. Please, I had my period on the 13th of August to 16th. My fertility window started on the 24th and I had sex from the 24th to 30th. Have I conceived? I'm praying for twins and I believe God will do it for me. Amen!
    1. Christina (OC Team): Only a test can tell you if you conceived. You should be able to test on the 12th. Good luck! - (Sep 06, 2016)
  30. Elizabeth Sep 06, 2016
    Alright, thanks. I pray that I will test positive because my husband is traveling out of the country. We are not going to see each other again till next year, and we just got married two months ago.
  31. Eam Sep 07, 2016
    I want to know what signs to look for after ovulation. Are there any signs or special feelings, like cramping on day 1 or two... or anything like that?
    1. Christina (OC Team): I think you're asking about the signs of implantation. Have a look at this article: - (Sep 08, 2016)
  32. Oladunni Sep 08, 2016
    Hi, I have been trying to conceive for the past few months now, but I believe that God will do it this time around. I started my period 29/8/16 and ended it on 2/9/16. I am praying for twins.
    1. Christina (OC Team): It's normal for a healthy, fertile couple to take a few cycles to conceive. Good luck! - (Sep 08, 2016)
  33. Roseline Sep 08, 2016
    I had my last period on the 25th of August and my ovulation starts on the 7th of Sep. I had sex on the 5th and 7th.. What are my chances of conception?
    1. Christina (OC Team): You have a chance at conceiving as long as you had sex within your fertile window. Good luck! - (Sep 08, 2016)
  34. Roseline Sep 08, 2016
    Thanks; but not satisfied with the answer as an expert in this field you would have done more than this.
    1. Christina (OC Team): I'm sorry you're disappointed, but I cannot estimate your personal chances of conceiving in a cycle. The good news is that from what you've said, you do have a chance, so I wish you luck! - (Sep 09, 2016)
  35. Roseline Sep 09, 2016
    1. OG.: Thank you. I can't find any drop down calendar. By God's grace my preferred sex is a boy. I want see the calender and follow up my predictions from there. - (Oct 09, 2016)
    2. Christina (OC Team): From your homepage (when you're logged in), click on the circle that says current cycle. This will bring you to your calendar. - (Oct 10, 2016)
  36. Monique Sep 09, 2016
    My period came almost two weeks ago. I had intercourse yesterday and my period came back at this time super heavy with extra cramping. What did I do?
    1. Christina (OC Team): You may want to talk to your doctor about your irregular period, especially with heavy bleeding and worse-than-normal cramping. - (Sep 09, 2016)
  37. Ifunanya Sep 10, 2016
    Hey Rose, sorry you're disappointed. From what I read on here, I think it's advisable to BD 2 days before and 1 dpo. Having sex on your ovulation day is ok but I doubt the dust to you, dear.
  38. S.n Sep 10, 2016
    Me too. Trying two years ago, but no good news. My last date is 23 August, 2016.
  39. Mashudu Sep 11, 2016
    Hi, I've been trying to get pregnant for the past 10 months. It's kinda difficult because my cycle is sometimes regular and sometimes irregular, but fortunately, this month i was able to track my ovulation day.
    1. Christina (OC Team): That's great... good luck! - (Sep 11, 2016)
  40. Cheryl Sep 15, 2016
    I had sex on Aug 3. I had my period the same day. Then I had sex on Aug18. I took a pregnancy test on Aug 31. It was negative and my period didn't come until Sep 7.
  41. Cyndel Sep 23, 2016
    I had my period on the 26th of August and had sex on the 31st to the 3rd of Sept. My period was supposed to come on the 19th, but it later came on the 21st. What really happened? Because it came without mensural pains.
    1. Christina (OC Team): Many things can throw off your menstrual cycle, including diet and stress. If you think you may be pregnant, take a test. Good luck. - (Sep 23, 2016)
  42. Cyndel Sep 23, 2016
    My period started on the 21st of Sep. I've used the ovulation calculator to know my fertile window, though I did that last month, but it didn't work. Is there anything i can do to make it work this time around?
    1. Christina (OC Team): Like any online calculator, Ovulation Calculator uses your cycle dates and information to come up with a prediction. Since women ovulate on different dates, even if they have the same cycle length, your prediction is an estimation. What stands out about OC, though, is that it will become more accurate as you log information. It essentially learns your personal cycle. I'd suggest tracking in another way, such as OPKs or charting BBT, and logging results into your account here. Good luck! - (Sep 24, 2016)
  43. Cyndel Sep 25, 2016
    Can one be pregnant and still have her period? My period ended yesterday, but today I was having sick feelings and i vomited.
    1. Christina (OC Team): You cannot be pregnant and have a menstrual period, but some women do experience bleeding that is mistaken for a period while pregnant. If you think you're pregnant, try taking a test. Good luck! - (Sep 25, 2016)
  44. SDiaz Sep 26, 2016
    My period started on Sep 9th.
  45. Martinson Sep 27, 2016
    Where or how do I find the ME page?
    1. Christina (OC Team): It should be your homepage at when you are logged in. - (Sep 27, 2016)
  46. Amber Sep 28, 2016
    Yesterday, I had sex and my chances of conceiving were good (2 days before ovulation). Today, they are best, and I ovulate tomorrow according to charts. If I don't have sex today or tomorrow, will that significantly hurt my chances to conceive? I know that if you have sex any time during your fertile window, you have at least a chance but I'm just curious how much the odds are in my favor for only having sex one day during my fertile window and two days before ovulation. If I do ovulate on the day predicted, how long can sperm survive inside the Fallopian tube?
    1. Christina (OC Team): It's better if you can have sex on one of those days, but don't stress if you can't. It only takes one sperm. Sperm can live up to 5 days in your body. Good luck! - (Sep 29, 2016)
  47. Amber Sep 30, 2016
    Thanks! I did end up having sex the day before ovulation and the day of and about 6hrs afterward I felt a lot of cramping in my left side, implantation maybe? We lost a baby in April 2016 so I'm praying this time I will become pregnant with no complications! I have 3 other children (not with my current husband) whom I conceived and birthed with absolutely no problems whatsoever so it's been disheartening that it's taken two years for my husband and I to conceive one of our own. He has a son so we know it's possible for him and I both to produce a child. He believes the quality of his sperm isn't great but I believe we weren't having sex at the right times to conceive. Send me tons of baby dust!!! I test on Oct 13th and praying for a BFP and no miscarriage this time around!
    1. Christina (OC Team): The cramping you experienced was likely a symptom of ovulation. Implantation occurs at about 6-12 days past ovulation. Sending lots of baby dust your way! :) - (Oct 01, 2016)
  48. Cindy Oct 01, 2016
    I skipped a period in August. Now i had my period on september 7th, and I'm trying to conceive. I've been following my ovulation days carefully. Let's see if this month it's right.
  49. Amber Oct 01, 2016
    Thank you so much! I'll certainly let you know my results, hopefully this is it! Prayers! Good luck to everyone trying to conceive as well :)
  50. [email protected] Oct 02, 2016
    Thanks for your support.
  51. Bie Oct 04, 2016
    Can someone tell me what is sex during the fertile window?
    1. Christina (OC Team): Your fertile window includes the six days leading up to and including ovulation. This is the time a woman is most fertile. - (Oct 05, 2016)
  52. Crystal Oct 06, 2016
    I had my period on 22\9\2016 and I had sex on 6\10\2016. That is my ovulation day. Please, will I get pregnant??
    1. Christina (OC Team): If you had sex on your ovulation day, there's a chance. Please understand that there are no guarantees. Good luck! - (Oct 06, 2016)
  53. Oladunni Oct 06, 2016
    Thank you, Christina, for your help
  54. Seun Oct 07, 2016
    I had sex on a Wednesday because the ovulation calculator predicted Thursday to be ovulation day, but I didn't get the very stretchy cervical fluid and egg white until Friday through Saturday. What are my chances of conception?
    1. Christina (OC Team): It sounds like you may have ovulated later, but you likely still had sex in your fertile window, so there's a chance for conception this month. Log your EWCM and your prediction should update for next month. Good luck! - (Oct 09, 2016)
  55. Seun Oct 09, 2016
    Thank you, Christina. I logged data for EWCM. I will wait to see what comes up this month.
  56. Roseline Oct 11, 2016
    Ok, thanks.
  57. Victory Oct 14, 2016
    On my O day, I had really hard and heavy cramping with lot of gas and bloating. At 1dpo, I had light cramps with a cold and a big headache that comes and go. I've been gassy and feeling very lazy from O day until now and my nipple are still sore. After 5dpo, I really had a bad cramps and felt like I was going to start my period that night. From 6dpo till now, it's kinda less cramping, but lower back pain. This morning, my blood sugar went low to 77. I will be due in 7 days from now. I hope I will get a positive test?
    1. Christina (OC Team): I hope so too! Good luck! - (Oct 14, 2016)
  58. Victory Oct 14, 2016
  59. Jami Oct 20, 2016
    Is it really possible to choose the gender of your baby?
    1. Christina (OC Team): There are a few methods that many people swear by, but there isn't sufficient research to support the idea that anything we do before/during conception would impact the baby's gender. - (Oct 21, 2016)
    2. Jami: Ok, thank you - (Oct 21, 2016)
  60. Saa Oct 21, 2016
    Thanks for the knowledge.
  61. Joy Oct 22, 2016
    I had my period on the 28th of Sept and had sex on the 8th and 9th according to the predictions of my ovulation. Today being the 22nd of Oct., I tested negative for pregnancy. Please was this test too early?
    1. Christina (OC Team): It could have been too early. Wait a few days and try testing again. Good luck! - (Oct 22, 2016)
  62. Joy Oct 22, 2016
    Expecting to see my period on the 24th of Oct.
  63. Dena Oct 25, 2016
    Hi christina (oc team), I had my period on oct 15 2016. It went off on Oct 19. My fertile window was last night, which was the 24th. I had sex with my boyfriend, but he didnt cum in me. He did pre-cum. Can u get pregnant from precum? I am taking one a day prenatal vitamins and my ovulation is next week 30 to nov 4. So could I still get pregnant?
    1. Christina (OC Team): Hi Dena, Since pulling out isn't a reliable method of birth control, it's possible, but it is unlikely. - (Oct 26, 2016)
  64. Alonge Oct 26, 2016
    My last period came on the 1st of Oct, 2016. I had BD on the 13-15 of same month. What is my chance of getting pregnant?
    1. Christina (OC Team): Log your cycle dates into your account here and you'll get a prediction of your fertile window. If you have sex in your fertile window, you have a chance at getting pregnant in a cycle. Good luck! - (Oct 26, 2016)
  65. Sarah Oct 26, 2016
    Hi, last month i went to doctor for a suspected pregnancy. The doctor referred me to the hospital. I went there and the hospital gynecologist said I was referred due to suspected cancer because of my bleeding pattern. I had all tests done and they came back clear. I also got checked to see if I was fertile. Me and my partner are trying to conceive. Just last month, I started bleeding (30sep till 4th oct), then pinkish mucus started on the 12th of Oct till the 15th and again today, I have pinkish mucus. I can't work out ovulation. Please can anyone help?
    1. Christina (OC Team): I'd suggest that you start tracking your cycles, if you aren't already. This guide on checking cervical mucus may also help - (Oct 26, 2016)
  66. Oyedeji Oct 26, 2016
    I got my BFP today! I joined last month. I am so excited. Ovulation calculator, you guys rock!
    1. Christina (OC Team): Congratulations!! - (Oct 27, 2016)
  67. Timiebi Oct 27, 2016
    Is there something I am not doing right as regard conceiving I'm TTC since it has been 22 weeks now?
    1. Christina (OC Team): It can take a healthy, fertile couple six cycles or more to conceive, so you aren't necessarily doing anything wrong. But have a look at this article for some tips - (Oct 27, 2016)
  68. Timiebi Oct 28, 2016
    Okay, thank you. I don't know if Christina (OC Team) is a medical practitioner. I need your advice... My mentrual period smell so badly. That happened after an abortion years back, so I'm wondering if a prescription can be made here, something I can use for the smell to subside. Thank you.
    1. Christina (OC Team): Hi Timiebi, I cannot offer medical advice. You'll need to ask your doctor. Good luck! - (Oct 28, 2016)
  69. Crystal Oct 30, 2016
    My husband and I had sex on 10/17 and 10/18. He ejaulated both times. My last cycle was on 10/4 and ended 10/9. Could I be pregnant and when should I take a pregnancy test?
    1. Christina (OC Team): You can test at 14dpo or the day after your missed period. Good luck! - (Oct 30, 2016)
  70. Tana Nov 02, 2016
    Wow! This is an extremely amazing site. The information is useful and elaborate; the diagrams help too. I am awed at the 'struggle' the about 250 million sperm go through to fertilize one egg. I feel like, as strong as the 'male' is, the 'female' still outsmart 'him' and seems to 'decide/determine' which (sperm) gets to her (ovum). Interesting!
  71. Rachel Nov 04, 2016
    What are the chances of getting a healthy pregnancy after a miscarriage?
    1. Christina (OC Team): Unfortunately, miscarriages are more common than most people realize. Many women go on to have healthy pregnancies after a miscarriage. - (Nov 04, 2016)
    2. Rachel: Thank you so much, Christina. You have given me some hope to trying again. We are a young couple and lost our baby at 9 weeks and 2 days. Trusting God for baby dust. - (Nov 05, 2016)
  72. Nyakamrembo Nov 04, 2016
    My fertile window was the 25th-30th of Oct 2016. We had sex, so am trusting God that it happened. My lower stomach is hard to the touch and I feel kinda bloated. Could it be a baby? I am so anxious waiting to miss my period.
    1. Christina (OC Team): It sounds like a possibility. Good luck! - (Nov 04, 2016)
    2. Faith: Hi dear, that was my fertile window too. Praying we get BFPs. All the best. - (Nov 10, 2016)
    3. Rachel: Feeling sad.My period came this morning. - (Nov 13, 2016)
  73. Nyakamrembo Nov 04, 2016
    Thanks Christina, I cant wait to taste positive.
  74. Bamigbola Nov 06, 2016
    So help me. What can I do to stop the sperm from coming out of my vagina after sex? And am in my ovulation cycle?
    1. Christina (OC Team): Some sperm coming out is normal, and there's not much you can do to stop it. If you log your cycle info into your account here, you'll get a prediction of your fertile window. - (Nov 07, 2016)
  75. Faith Nov 10, 2016
    I had my period on the 17th-22nd of Oct. My fertile window was from the 25th-30th. I did the BD on 23, 24, 25, 28. My cycle is 28 days, so my next period was to begin on the 14th of Nov, but when I logged in yesterday, I found my period had changed, that I should start on the 9th-14 of Nov and I have not seen it up to now. I am praying that I get my BFP.
    1. Christina (OC Team): Did you log any indicators of ovulation (cervical mucus, basal body temperature, OPK results)? This could have changed your period prediction. If you are unsure, you can wait until the 14th or 15th to test. Good luck! - (Nov 10, 2016)
    2. Faith: Still testing negative, but I haven't seen my period up to date. - (Nov 15, 2016)
  76. T.jonnes Nov 10, 2016
    My period might start tonight or tomorrow. When will I ovulate? My cycle is 25days.
    1. Christina (OC Team): Log your cycle details into your account here and you'll get a prediction of ovulation and your fertile window. Good luck! - (Nov 10, 2016)
  77. Janet Nov 14, 2016
    I had my period on October 28. I had sex on November 12th and on the 13th. Is it possible that I can get pregnant?
  78. Asia Nov 15, 2016
    Hi, my last period was June 21,2016. I have 5-day periods in a 28 day cycle. It is possible you got pregnant on the 29th of June.
  79. Brenda Nov 16, 2016
    I had my period in august 21,2016. Then again on September 16th, which lasted for 2 days, then in October, it came on the 16th again. Shortly after, it came November 1st and lasted for 4 days. I was taking a multivitamin called elyseewoman for about 2 months now. When am I likely to ovulate? And the cycle has been unstable. I had sex with my man on the 14th of November, the 15th, and today. Did I do it right? I have been taking over boost since the 1st of November. When am I likely to ovulate? And other details?
  80. KIndra Nov 19, 2016
    Hello! I had my period on November 5-10. My fertile window according to this app was November 12-16 and by ovulation day was November 17. My husband and I did the BD on November 12-17! I am praying that we get pregnant! We have been trying for two months! Baby dust to everyone!!!
  81. Jody Nov 30, 2016
    Maybe my last period was Nov 6th. Me and my bf have been having sex for 2 weeks straight and my period started again on Nov 26.
  82. Jody Nov 30, 2016
    My last period was Nov 1st to Nov 6th 2016. Me my boyfriend had sex for 2 weeks straight and now my period come back on the 26th. Until now, I don't understand why, so can you explain this to me, please?
  83. Jody Nov 30, 2016
    I had my period Nov 1st to Nov 6th. I have been having sex with my boyfriend and my period came back on Nov 26th and I'm just about to finish.
  84. Faith Dec 05, 2016
    I am an expectant mother. I had my period on the 8th of November and my cycle is 27 to 28 days. It is supposed to start today, but has not. Could I be pregnant without experiencing any signs?
  85. Annah Dec 11, 2016
    I feel pain like period pain and I have 12 days after ovulation. Maybe I'm pregnant or what?
  86. Sally Dec 13, 2016
    I have fibroids on my womb. I have started experiencing irregular and heavy menses. I have been trying to get pregnant for a while now. Please advise me on what to do.
  87. ATUHAIRWE Dec 15, 2016
    Thanks for this blog. What causes one to have irregular periods?
  88. Blaquy Dec 15, 2016
    Thanks for this article on the journey of sperm. I really learned a lot. But what causes sperm to always come out of my vagina after sex? Even when I raised my bottom with a pillow and stayed like that for 30 minutes, the sperm runs back out when I stand up.
    1. Christina (OC Team): Sperm are microscopic cells that are contained within semen. Some semen will leave the body after sex, but this should not be cause for alarm. Many sperm will remain to make the journey. - (Dec 17, 2016)
  89. Adeola Dec 22, 2016
    It's very enlightening. I am getting along.
  90. Latora Dec 27, 2016
    Hello, I am 35 years old and my husband is 25. We have one child of our own together, but we have been trying for 3 months without a positive result. My question is, can to much sperm prevent pregnancy? We have been trying for 30 days straight.
    1. Christina (OC Team): Most experts recommend having sex every other day during your fertile window, but it's possible to get pregnant by having sex more often. Good luck! - (Jan 03, 2017)
  91. Maddy Jan 02, 2017
    Hi, Can you please tell me if KY liquid lubricant is sperm-friendly? Is it safe to use if trying to conceive? On the box of KY, it says that this product is not contraceptive and does not kill sperm.
  92. Toyia Jan 03, 2017
    If I had sex on the day of my ovulation according to the ovulation calculator, is there a possibility that I could get pregnant? My partner came inside of me twice. I read that it was better to have sex before ovulation.
    1. Christina (OC Team): It is possible to get pregnant from having sex on the day of ovulation, but it may be more likely on the day before. Good luck! - (Jan 03, 2017)
  93. Oma Jan 10, 2017
    Is it possible to have a full cycle without ovulation?
  94. AAderogba Jan 11, 2017
    I have been trying for over a year now. I have been taking clomid for six months, then I did laparoscopy on the 28th November. I had a long period of seven days with thick clotting while taking the supplement furocyst. My last period came on the 22nd of December and that took 34 days before coming on like my previous cylce. The question is, why the long days before my period? Why the clotting? And when was I supposed to ovulate because I am confused.
  95. AAderogba Jan 11, 2017
    When am I supposed to ovulate if my last period was December 22 and it lasted for 7 days with a 34-day cycle?
    1. Christina (OC Team): If you log these cycle details into your Ovulation Calculator account, you'll get a prediction. Good luck! - (Jan 11, 2017)
  96. Jacinta Jan 21, 2017
    I have 24-day cycle, which tells me I ovulate on the 10th day, but sometimes I experience the stretchy discharge immediately after menstruation. Could it be my ovulation time?

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